English Language Professional

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The benefits of CALL

One of many benefits of CALL is that students can experience the language rather than merely studying it. Since students are in touch with computers outside the class, they can readily use computers inside the class. Students can participate in creating knowledge, not only receiving knowledge, in a way that they can learn more and better than using only a book and a pen to learn the language. In other words, they will have the opportunity to explore knowledge.

Another benefit is that using computers can improve students’ motivation. Students of that particular age love to use computers and technology. So, it’s strongly motivating for the students to learn the language through using something they love. In addition, fun games and interesting programs add joy to learning a language which Saudi students miss in many of their classes.

Moreover, using computers can increase students’ desire to develop their linguistic skills faster and increase their positive attitudes toward learning the target language better than those attending traditional classes, as Lee (2000) claims.

The availability of authentic materials is another benefit that computers and technology can offer. Saudi students want to use and work on authentic materials rather than the ones they are using nowadays at schools. In addition, students can access those authentic materials through the internet at any time of the week from anywhere.

Indeed, CALL encourages a learner-centered methodology. This approach leads to greater interaction between students either among themselves or with people outside of the class through using internet. As an English instructor, I noticed in my classes that very few students, probably 9 out of 40, who actively participate and interact during the classes. However, using computers and the internet will increase the interaction of those who participate and will help and motivate students who don’t participate and interact to do so.

Another benefit of CALL can be noted in encouraging shy or nervous students to participate more. Some of my students don’t participate in class while they get A’s on papers and in the final. I used to ask them why they didn’t participate in class since they showed great advance in English and I used to have the same reply. They said that they were shy and nervous because if they participated and made mistakes, their friends will laugh about them! So, using computers could boost their spirits to use the language more and it will help them to have more self-confidence.

Independent learning and different resources are other benefits that can be realized in CALL classes. When you spend more than 3 months studying one book, you will reach some state of boredom especially if you realize that 90% of the book is irrelevant to real life! CALL will make more resources available for students and many chances to learn and it will open the door for students to try to notice their mistakes and correct them. CALL also can help students to improve faster and be independent in learning the target language.

The barriers to implementing CALL

One of the types that Hooper and Rieber (1995) divided technology in education into is ‘product technologies’. Product technologies consist of: (1) Hardware technologies including movies, audiocassette players, video cassette players, laserdisc, CD-ROM, computers, etc. (Hooper & Rieber, 1995). (2) Software technologies include books, worksheets, overhead transparencies and computer assisted instruction (Hooper & Rieber, 1995). Product technologies are the main issue here. Hardware and software cost much more money than giving out written materials. However, in order to overcome these financial barriers, we need to get governmental support.

The availability of hardware and software is another issue to tackle when writing about the barriers of using computers in class. Hardware and software are vital aspects of computers and we should take them into consideration when integrating technologies into the curriculum because they are the basic elements in CALL. Moreover, the issue of developing software to promote learning is another obstacle because software development takes more time and money. Creating software programs to enhance different skills is a major undertaking and it will be initially difficult.

Finally, some Saudis’ misconception of technology is another barrier to consider. Many conservative families still have fears of technology and the internet. However, there are many teenagers who don’t use technology appropriately and they waste their times over chatting, games and worthless programs. This is a major barrier to adoption of technology by the conservative families. In order to solve this problem, we have to provide workshops for the parents about how to use technology for the sake of educating and enlightening their children. Step by step, parents and their children will be acquainted with technology appropriately and they would start a new way of dealing with technology and using it for English learning purposes.

people-computers

 

Teaching and learning the English language is in high demand in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Many Saudi students are eager to learn the English language properly and speak it fluently. Very few students succeed in acquiring English language fluency despite their strong desire and tremendous ambition. Many obstacles hinder their progress in learning a new language. One of the biggest obstacles is the lack of well-equipped language classrooms.

Technology, in general, has had a major role in making the world a flat (Friedman, 2007). Since technology has this big role in our lives, why don’t we start using it properly to help teach languages instead of standing aside watching other countries, which use technology more effectively, passing us by? Since I started teaching English to Saudi students eight years ago, I have never used any kind of technology, or worked in a computer lab with my students, because computer labs or technologically well-equipped classrooms were not available.

The idea of people in transition from living in different continents into one virtual flat should motivate the Ministry of Education in Saudi Arabia to build up modern well-equipped classrooms and incorporate new technologies into school labs in order to change the way Saudi students learn the English language.

In 2009, I was selected by the Fulbright program. One of the requirements that I had to fulfill was to teach the Arabic language to American students at Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia. I had two courses to teach. One of the courses was the beginners’ Arabic 101 class. This course was given twice a week with one hour and twenty minutes for each class. The classroom was well equipped with all the technologies required. I observed that the students showed amazing progress and performance in their four principal language skills, especially listening and speaking.

One of my American students managed to learn Spanish, French and started to learn Arabic. Incorporating technologies into classes was a big motivation for her. In addition, the ability to access course materials, including Arabic 101, online from any location allowed her to study at her own appropriate time.

This experience made me reflect upon the reason behind many Saudi students’ failure to acquire English language fluency, although it is not as hard as either the French or Arabic languages. I reached a conclusion that has been discussed in many previous studies which is that technology could tremendously increase the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and could create the necessary environment for the Saudi students to start learning the English language more properly and efficiently.

Fifteen years ago, computers were new devices for Saudis. The use of computers was limited to a small number of people. Recently, for this generation and the coming generations, using computers is normal and everyone is expected to be familiar with computers and Information Technology.

Nowadays, we have many other technologies that are easier-to-use and lighter than computers, such as smartphones and iPads. Students have the right to use such technology at school. So, teaching English through using computers would be the first step for them towards acquiring better English knowledge. In addition, they would have better opportunities to use such technologies to learn English in their free time outside of school. This would help them to improve their four principal language skills as well (listening, speaking, reading and writing).

Due to cultural beliefs and social ideology, many students find it hard to learn the English language in Saudi Arabia. The majority of Saudi students and parents believe that it is impossible to acquire the English language unless a student travels to study and live in a country where English is the spoken language. One of the reasons that led them to reach this conclusion is the way the English language is taught in Saudi Arabia.

Many students complete more than six years of studying English for four classes, 45 minutes for each class, per week and they hardly can read words and sentences properly! It has become a nagging issue to many Saudis since English is one of the major languages of the world and is a language that anyone can communicate with in many foreign countries. So, the Ministry of Education  has to take CALL seriously and try to work on providing well-equipped classrooms with suitable technologies in order for Saudi students to have a better environment in which to learn.

By: Rami Alghamdi

chp_langhead

 

A. Introduction

A comparison of semantics and pragmatics is a very large undertaking and a simple essay does not provide a sufficient venue for discussing all of the ideas and notions related to the many different views of semantics and pragmatics. However, given that I am very interested in linguistics, I view the comparison of semantics and pragmatics from a linguist’s point of view. This approach will help the reader to focus on a single aspect of this broad topic. The goal of this essay is to identify the similarities between the two sub-fields and to highlight the main differences between these sub-fields as discussed in the field of linguistics.

B. Similarities between Semantics and Pragmatics

The two branches of linguistics, i.e. semantics and pragmatics, deal with the meaning of language and link language to the world. Each branch deals with meaning differently; yet, many students of linguistics confuse the two terms. The only obvious similarity between the two branches is that they both deal with the meanings of words and sentences but in different ways. According to Lyons (1977), semantics is a branch of knowledge that is concerned with meaning whereas Levinson (1983) defined pragmatics as a branch of knowledge that is concerned with language use. However, note that the fields of semantics and pragmatics are integrally related to one another. For example, some categories in semantics require the application of pragmatics in order to arrive at a satisfactory interpretation. Deictic words, for instance, take some elements of their meanings from the context in which they are uttered (Hurford, Heasley, & Smith, 2007). As an example, the pronoun “he” cannot be fully interpreted unless we know to whom the pronoun refers.
Interestingly, a certain amount of tension exists between practitioners of each sub-field. According to pragmaticists, semanticists give unsatisfactory or incomplete interpretations of utterances and a complete interpretation of any utterance requires both semantics and pragmatics (Bianchi, 2005).

C. Differences between Semantics and Pragmatics

The theory of signs by Morris (1938) clearly highlighted the differences between these branches of study by describing how we can deal with the meaning of signs from a semantic dimension or a pragmatic dimension. Based on this logical view, we can grasp meanings of words from two different dimensions. The semantic dimension refers to the study of the relations of words to which they refer whereas the pragmatic dimension refers to the study of the relationship between words, the interlocutors and the context.
Although Bach (1999) stated that viewing the differences between semantics and pragmatics through their implementation is easier than to describing them in plain words, certain evidences highlight the differences between semantics and pragmatics. First of all, one of them is highlighted by the process of determining meaning. Semanticists adopt a narrow scope because they deal with only text and analyze the meaning of words and how they are combined to constitute meaningful sentences. In contrast, pragmaticists’ work adopts a wider scope beyond the text itself; indeed, they consider the facts surrounding the utterance such as the contextual factors, knowledge of the world surrounding the context of the message, the speaker’s intended meaning and the hearer’s inferences in order to interpret that utterance (Bianchi, 2004). Consequently, the meaning of an utterance is context-independent in semantics but it is context-dependent in pragmatics. In addition, certain words and expressions cannot be understood unless they are put in a context. For example, the English use of sentence “it hit me” has many different meaning when used in everyday conversation. It could mean “it came into violent contact with the speaker” or “it became apparent to the speaker.” Either way, the determination of the correct meaning of this sentence requires knowledge of the context in which it is used.
Another difference can be found in Grice’s Theory of Implicature which is pragmatics oriented (Horn, 2006). In fact, this theory shed more light on the fine line separating semantics and pragmatics. In this theory, Grice focused on the speaker’s intention with a particular utterance because the speaker may wish to convey a different meaning than what the sentence itself means (Horn, 2006). For example, Horn (2006) detailed a situation in which a person is described as having a good personality which may imply that he/she is not attractive, thereby necessitating a discussion about their personality rather than their looks.
In addition to this theory, the two theories of locution and illocution clarify the importance of and illustrate the difference between pragmatics and semantics in terms of their approaches to analyzing sentences. Locution refers to uttering a stretch of words that have been formed in a particular way to carry some degree of specific meaning while illocution refers to the task that those utterances perform such as demanding, asking, requesting, etc. (Lyons, 1995). In other words, locutionary act is what a sentence says and is; therefore, equivalent to meaning in the traditional sense whereas illocutionary act is what a sentence does when uttered by a speaker and; as a result, performs a certain act intended by the speaker. Both of these acts are related to semantics and pragmatics respectively.
Another dissimilarity emerges with the principle of compositionality attributed to Frege (Partee, 2008). This principle introduces an interesting view based on which understanding the whole meaning of an expression entails figuring out the meanings of its constituent parts (Partee, 2008). For instance, a customer enters a coffee shop where the following conversation takes place:
Customer: May I have English tea and a glass of water, please?
Waiter: Sure. Right away, sir.
The principle of compositionality claims that we do not need to know anything other than the context to understand the meaning of the sentences. The waiter figures out the meaning of the sentence by knowing the meaning of each lexical item in that given sentence and by being aware of their combinations rather than trying to understand the speaker’s intention or having knowledge of the surrounding world. This theory is more useful to semanticists since they deal with meanings of words and how they are combined to form sentences.
Another difference is noted when examining some conjunctions that have non-truth conditional meanings that can only be determined if they are inserted into a given context. In other words, such conjunctions as “so” and “but” can only be studied within a pragmatic framework rather than semantic one (Blakemore, 2002).
Another distinction is introduced in Blakemore’s (2002) discussions of the idea of the procedural process versus the conceptual process. According to Blakemore’s (2002), in procedural process, the hearer follows certain clues in the uttered expressions to grasp the contextual assumptions and effects that are intended by the speaker. By those uttered expressions, the procedural information is encoded while, in conceptual process, the hearer constructs a series of representations including phonetics, phonological, syntactic and semantic ones which are connected to different linguistic rules. However, pragmatics involves the procedural process with the focus on the connection between the language uttered and the context in which it is used while semantics entails the conceptual process by concentrating on the meaning of expressions (Blakemore 2002).
Finally, Leech (1980) stated that semantics can be placed in the grammar domain with a linguistic system or code while pragmatics can be placed in the rhetoric domain where codes are implemented. Moreover, the former is rule-governed whereas the later is principle-governed (Leech, 1980). Note that Leech (1980) mentioned this comparison between rules and principles in relation to Sealre’s distinction between regulative and constitutive rules to draw our attention to the idea that principle is more normative than descriptive, thereby differentiating it from rules.

D. Concluding remarks

Semantics and pragmatics are both sub-branches of the field of linguistics. Yet, as different disciplines, they are only similar in that both sub-branches deal with meaning. As this essay has shown, many aspects of research on language highlight the differences between the two sub-fields such as Morris’s theory of signs, the process of determining meaning, Grice’s theory of implicature, the theories of locution and illocution, Frege’s principle of compositionality, determining meaning of some conjunctions that have non-truth conditional meanings by inserting them into a given context and the procedural process versus the conceptual process distinction.
In conclusion, Leech (1980) described the difficulty of drawing a line between meaning conceive as an abstract property of the sentence and meaning conceived based on a context function. Based on the previous views, I prefer to adopt Recanati (2004) suggestion, i.e. look at semantics and pragmatics as complementary disciplines.

References
Bach, K. (1999). The semantics-pragmatics distinction: what it is and why it matters. In K. Turner (Ed.), The semantics/pragmatics interface from different points of view (1 ed.). Bradford, England: Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Bianchi, C. (2005). The semantics/pragmatics distinction (2nd ed.). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Blakemore, D. (2002). Relevance and linguistic meaning: The semantics and pragmatics of discourse markers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Horn, L. R. (2006). Implicature. In L. Horn & G. Ward (Eds.), The handbook of pragmatics (pp. 3-28). Hoboken, New Jersey: Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Hurford, J., Heasley, B., & Smith M. (2007). Semantics (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Leech, G. N. (1980). Explorations in semantics and pragmatics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Levinson, C. S. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lyons, J. (1977). Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Lyons, J. (1995). Linguistic semantics: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Morris, C. (1938). Foundations of the theory of sign. In O. Neurath, R. Carnap, & C. Morris (Eds.), International encyclopedia of unified science (Vol. 1, pp. 6). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Partee B. H. (2008). Compositionality in formal semantics: Selected papers by Barbara H. Partee. Hoboken, New Jersey: Blackwell publishing Ltd.
Recanati, F. (2004). Literal meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Deixis and Definiteness

Deixis

Introduction

- Most words mean what they mean regardless of who uses them, and when and where they are used.
– All languages contain small sets of words whose meanings vary systematically according to who uses them, and where and when they are used. These words are called deictic words: the general phenomenon of their occurrence is called deixis. The word deixis is from a Greek word meaning pointing.

Deixis

- Definition: A DEICTIC word is one which takes some elements of its meaning from the context or situation.
– Types of Deixis
1. Person such as I and you.
2. Time such as yesterday and tomorrow.
3. Place such as here and there.
4. Modifiers which can be used with referring expressions, like the demonstratives such as this and that.
5. Some verbs such as come which has a deictic ingredient because it contains the notion ‘toward the speaker’. Another example is the verb bring.
Moreover, There are in English and other languages certain grammatical devices called tenses for indicating past, present and future times which must also be regarded as deictic, because past, present and future times are defined by reference to the time of utterance.
Example, David says “John gave me some tea”. When did John give David some tea before, at or after the time of David’s utterance?

Generalization

A generalization can be made about the behavior of all deictic terms in reported speech. In reported speech, deictic terms occurring in the original utterance (the utterance being reported) may be translated into other, possibly non-deictic, terms in order to preserve the original reference. Ex. John : I will meet you tomorrow “John said he would meet me there the next day”

Definiteness

- Definition: definiteness is a feature of a noun phrase selected by a speaker to convey his assumption that the hearer will be able to identify the referent of the noun phrase, usually because it is the only thing of its kind in the context of the utterance, or because it is unique in the universe of discourse.
– Types of definiteness
1. Proper names e.g. John, Queen Victoria.
2. Personal pronouns e.g. he, she, it.
3. Phrases introduced by a definite determiner such as the, that, this.

Generalization

All definite noun phrases are referring expressions.

Exception

We can’t assume that every noun phrase using the so-called ‘definite article’ the is necessarily semantically definite. For example, in generic sentences, one can find a phrase beginning with the where the hearer cannot be expected to identify the referent. E.g. ‘The whale is a mammal’ where there is no a particular whale is being referred to.

Reference1

Reference

- Definition: By means of reference, a speaker indicates which things in the world (including persons) are being talked about. Ex. My son is in the beech house. (My son identifies person – the beech tree identifies thing)
– In other words, reference is a relationship between parts of a language and things outside the language (i.e. in the world)
– Referent + Reference: Touch your left ear, your left ear is the referent of the phrase while the reference is the relationship between the phrase and the actual thing in the real world.
– However, in talking of reference, we deal with the relationships between language and the world.
– In reference, the same expression can, in some cases, be used to refer to different things. Ex. Touch your left ear. (There are many potential referents for the phrase your left ear as there are people in the world with left ears)
– There are cases of expressions which in normal everyday conversation never refer to different things and they have constant reference. (Moon)
– There is very little constancy of reference in language.
– Moreover, two different expressions can have the same referent. Ex. The classic example is the Morning Star and the Evening Star, both of which normally refer to the planet Venus.

Sense

- Definition: The sense of an expression is its place in a system of semantic relationships with other expressions in the language.
– In talking of sense, we deal with relationships inside the language.
– There are different semantic relationships; one of them is sameness of meaning. Ex. I almost (nearly) fell over.
– When we talk about the sense, not only of words, but also of longer expressions such as phrases and sentences. Ex. Bachelors prefer redheads ——- Girls with red hair are preferred by unmarried men.
– In some cases, the same word can have more than one sense. Ex. The word bank.
– Moreover, one sentence can have different senses too. Ex. The chicken is ready to eat.

Sense and proposition

- Just as there is something grammatically complete about a whole sentence, as opposed to a smaller expression such as a phrase or a single word, there is something semantically complete about a proposition, as opposed to the sense of a phrase or single word. Ex. Johnny has got a new teacher.

General Rule

- Every expression that has meaning has sense, but not every expression has reference. Ex. Almost, probable, and, if, above. (They have some sense).

General notes

- The notions of sense and reference are central to the study of meaning.
– The idea of reference is relatively solid and easy to understand.
– The idea of sense is more elusive.

Pun

Pun1

Definition

The pun, also called paronomasia (the use of a word in different senses or the use of words similar in sound to achieve a specific effect, as humor or a dual meaning; punning.) is a form of word play which suggests two or more meanings, by exploiting multiple meanings of words, or of similar-sounding words, for an intended humorous or rhetorical effect.
– We can distinguish pun semantically not naturally!
– The maker of pun is called punster who is fond of making puns. He is also called punner.
History of puns
– Puns were found in ancient Egypt, where they were heavily used in development of myths and interpretation of dreams.
– In China, Shen Tao (ca. 300 BC) used “shih”, meaning “power”, and “shih”, meaning “position” to say that a king has power because of his position as king.
– In ancient Iraq, about 2500 BC, punning was used by scribes (a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of printing.) to represent words in cuneiform (composed of slim triangular or wedge-shaped elements, as the characters used in writing by the ancient Akkadians, Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and others.).
– The Maya are known for having used puns in their hieroglyphic writing, and for using them in their modern languages.
– In Japan, “graphomania” (a passion or urge to write; also called scribomania) was one type of pun.

Types of puns

- Two major types of puns: Typographic and Visual puns.
– Typographic puns: 1. Homophonic puns can be easier to construct, since they rely on words that simply sound alike, rather than a single word with multiple meanings. Ex. I bet the butcher the other day that he couldn’t reach the meat that was on the top shelf. He refused to take the bet, saying that the steaks were too high!
2. Homographic puns exploits words which are spelled the same (homographs) but possess different meanings and sounds. Because of their nature, they rely on sight more than hearing, contrary to homophonic puns. They are also known as heteronymic puns. Ex. (“You can tune a guitar, but you can’t tuna fish. Unless of course, you play bass.”)
3. Homonymic puns, another common type, arise from the exploitation of words which are both homographs and homophones. The statement “Being in politics is just like playing golf: you are trapped in one bad lie after another” puns on the two meanings of the word lie as “a deliberate untruth” and as “the position in which something rests”. Another example: Bank (meaning embankment) and bank (where money is kept).
4. Compound puns is a statement that contains two or more puns. Example: Where do you find giant snails? On the ends of giants’ fingers (obviously reading giant snails as giant’s nails).
5. Recursive -In this case, the second aspect of the pun relies on the understanding of the first one, Example: (Infinity is not in finity) which means infinity is not in finite range.
oVisual puns: They are those which use non-phonetic writing.
Example: In ‘The Muppet Movie’, Kermit and Fozzie are driving. Then Kermit looks at the map and says they need to turn at the fork in the road. At this point, he lowers the map at which point and sees a giant fork in the middle of the road.
Different examples
– One-liner
I wondered why the baseball kept getting bigger. Then it hit me.
Joke
Two hats were hanging on a hat rack in the hallway. One hat said to the other, ‘You stay here; I’ll go on a-head’.
– In literature
In Shakespearee’s Julius Caesar, there is a cobbler. When asked what he did, he replies, I am a mender of men’s soles (souls).

Puns and translation:

1. Cultural difficulties:
When is an Irish Potato not an Irish Potato?
When it’s a French fry!
2. Linguistic difficulties:
When talking about meat in Syria:
In Syria, people can’t have peace! (Have a piece).

Language system

1. In deductive approach, students see examples of language and try to work out rules.
2. The trick of explaining meaning effectively is to choose the best method to fit the meaning that need to be explained.
3. Short-term memory is where things are stored only for as long as they are needed.
4. When we use choral repetition, we get all students to say the new word or phrase together.
5. In pronunciation teaching, students should have as much opportunity as possible to listen to spoken English.
6. Songs and chants are good for rhythm, and for young children, especially, they make the business of stress easy and uncomplicated since it doesn’t even have to be explained.
7. All vowels are voiced because the air vibrates as it passes through the closed cords.
8. At beginner levels, teachers frequently use explain and practice procedures.
9. Slips are mistakes which students can correct themselves, one the mistake has been pointed out to them.
10. Errors are mistakes which students can’t correct themselves and, therefore, need explanation.
11. False friends are those words that sound the same but have different meanings.
12. Developmental errors occur naturally as the students’ language knowledge develops.
13. When students are involved in a speaking activity, instant and intrusive correction is often not appropriate.
14. Some teachers point out that something is wrong by echoing what the student says with a questioning intonation.
15. Praising students is only effective if students know what they are being praised for, and when they themselves believe it is merited.

boy-writing

1. Grammar, vocabulary and pronunciation are the elements of the language.
2. Vowel and consonants are the two main categories of sounds.
3. The present continuous verb form can refer to both the present and the future.
4. With countable nouns, you can count what the words refer to.
5. Collective nouns are nouns that describe groups or organizations.
6. Personal pronouns, reflexive pronouns and relative pronouns are the three basic types of pronoun.
7. We use definite articles when we think that the reader or the listener knows which particular thing or person we are talking about.
8. Adjectives describe and modify the nouns they come before or after.
9. A verb tense is the form of the verb we choose when we want to say what time.
10. Phrasal verbs are formed by adding a particle to a verb to create new meanings.
11. Present, past, simple and continuous are the verb forms in English.
12. Passive constructions are often used when we don’t know or we don’t want to say who did something.
13. Conditional sentences are formed when the conjunction ‘if’ is used to preface a condition.
14. Lexical chunks are strings of words which behave almost as one unit.
15. Cohesion refers to the devices we use to stick text together – the way we connect ideas and sentences together.

TeachingLearning_wordle_0

1. Almost all children acquire a language, apparently without effort.
2. Language acquisition seems to be almost guaranteed for children up to about the age of six.
3. Some theorists have suggested that we can make a distinction between acquisition and learning.
4. Both acquisition and learning have their part to play in language getting for students after childhood.
5. Grammar translation approach is to present students with short grammar rules and word lists, and then translation exercises in which they had to make use of the same rules and words.
6. Drilling is still considered a useful technique to use, especially with low-level students.
7. PPP stands for presentation, practice and production. The PPP lessons or sequences are widely used in language classrooms around the world, especially for teaching simple language at lower levels.
8. In Task-Based Learning (TBL), the emphasis is on the task rather than the language.
9. Pre-task, task cycle and language focus are the three phases of TBL.
10. Eclecticism is choosing between the best elements of a number of different ideas and methods.
11. When students are properly engaged, the benefit they get will be considerably greater.
12. Study activities are those where the students are asked to focus on the construction of something (language itself, how it’s used, or how it sounds and looks).
13. Activate is an element that describes exercises and activities which are designed to get students using language as freely and communicative as they can.
14. Personalization is where students use language they have studied to talk about themselves, or to make their own original dialogues.
15. Straight arrows, boomerang and patchwork are types of ESA (Engage, Study and Activate) lesson sequences.

classroom-management

1. Teacher’s physical presence can play a large part in his management of the classroom environment.
2. Deciding how close to the students you should be when you work with them is a matter of appropriacy.
3. Most successful teachers move around the classroom to some extent.
4. The teacher has to be aware of what the students are doing and, where possible, how they are feeling.
5. It’s important for teachers to vary the quality of their voices according to the type of lesson and the type of activity.
6.Rough-tuning is the simplification of language which both parents and teachers make in order to increase the chances of their being understood.
7. There are two rules for giving instructions: they must be kept simple, and they must be logical.
8. The more a teacher talks, the less chance there is for the students to practice their own speaking.
9. At beginner levels, students are going to translate what is happening into their L1.
10. When teaching pronunciation, it is often useful if students can find an equivalent sound in the L1 for the English one they are trying to produce.
11. The teacher will have a clear view of all the students and the students can all see the teacher in orderly rows seating arrangement.
12. Circles or horseshoes seating arrangement is a good way for the teacher to lower the barriers between themselves and their students.
13. Separate tables seating arrangement in class is where students are seated in small groups at individual tables.
14. Whole class, groupwork and pairwork, solowork, and class-to-class are kinds of different student groupings.
15. Good teachers are able to be flexible, using different class groupings for different activities.

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